A subject is a category denoting some integrity, isolated from the world of objects in the process of human activity and cognition. One and the same object can be the subject of various types of research.

In sociology, a subobject means a certain reality that does not depend on the researcher. And under the subject - the properties, sides, relationships and processes of a given reality, allocated for a purposeful study.

The delineation of the object and the object was planned by Immanul Kant.

So the object is part of the objective world, and under the subject - what subject to study in it. The concept of the object is wider in scope than the concept of the subject, since the subject - object part. In its final form to the object and the subject can be given the following wording:

The object is a piece of objective, i.e., existing independently of the mind of researchers to reality.

The subject is specific to the science angle of view, the aspect of the object, specific to the particular branch of science and questions its categorical apparatus, the used research methods.

What are the object and subject of psychology as a science? In 1912. G. I. Chelpanov in the textbook "Psychology" gives a definition: "Psychology is the doctrine of the soul".

In 1926. K. N. Kornilov in his first tutorial says: "Psychology does not study the soul, and the manifestations of the soul, psychology is the science about the laws of human mental activity".

One of the most popular textbooks "Atlas of psychology" M. V. Gamezo and I. A. Domashenko define psychology as the science that studies the processes of active reflection of the human objective reality in the form of sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings and other processes and phenomena of the psyche.


Comparing the above definitions, you can see that the psyche is the object of psychology, and its various manifestations as an object. Therefore, at a later time, at the turn of the century (20-21), the following definition of psychology appears:

Psychology is the science and system of knowledge about the laws, mechanisms, mental facts and phenomena in human life.

In this case, the object of psychology is clearly defined - the psyche, and the subject, facts, regularities and mechanisms of the psyche are highlighted.

Among the diverse manifestations of the psyche, psychic processes, mental states, and the psychic properties of the personality are distinguished.

Distinguish cognitive, emotional, regulatory mental processes. The main function of cognitive processes is the reflection of the properties of the external world and internal features of the organism. Cognitive processes inform about the properties and phenomena of the surrounding world, they are the source of diverse knowledge and help to discover the laws of the development of nature and society. Cognition has two levels: imaginative and logical. Visual cognitive processes - sensation, perception, representation. The processes of logical cognition include thinking.

In emotional mental processes, human relations are reflected. They color the life of a person with different shades of experience (positive or negative). The gamma of human emotions is diverse, for example, happiness, surprise, grief, suffering, etc.

The main purpose of regulatory processes is the regulation of human behavior and activities, which ensures selective and targeted reaction. Regulatory processes include processes of attention and will.

In addition, the so-called integrative or through psychic processes that participate in the course of all mental processes are singled out, they include: speech, which acts as the 2nd signal system and connects sensory and logical cognition and memory that can be imaginative, logical And emotional. In addition, memory connects the present and the past in the person's consciousness, ensuring the integrity of the individual.

Mental states are relatively stable phenomena of mental activity, characterizing the psyche as a whole. They can be regarded as a background on which mental processes proceed. They may or may not favor an active activity. These are states of efficiency, fatigue, stress, affect, etc.

Mental properties are stable formations that provide a certain level of behavior and activities characteristic of a given person. Psychic properties include temperament, character, human abilities, the direction of his personality.

General psychology is the branch of psychological science that studies the most common patterns revealed by psychology, the methods of research that psychology, the theoretical principles that it adheres to, the basic scientific concepts that have come into its use.


The subject of studying general psychology are:

Cognitive and practical activities;

General patterns of mental processes: sensations, perceptions, memory, imagination, thinking, psychic self-regulation;

Differential psychological characteristics of a person's personality;

Character, temperament, prevailing motives of behavior, etc .;


Fundamental problems:

The essence and content of the psychic, the emergence and development of the psyche in filo and ontogenesis.

The main task of psychology as a science is the disclosure of the laws of the emergence, development and flow of a person's mental activity, the development of his psychic properties, the identification of the vital meaning of the psyche, and thereby assisting in its mastery, its purposeful formation in accordance with the needs of society.