Test Guildford "Social intelligence"
Social intelligence is the ability to understand the intentions, feelings and emotional state of a person by verbal (verbal) and nonverbal manifestations. Social intelligence is also showing foresight in interpersonal relationships. Social intelligence is associated with the ability to Express quick, almost automatic judgments about people, to predict the likely response of the person. This is a special "social gift" that provides the smoothness in dealing with people, which is a social fixture.
The author of the technique, J. Guilford, considered social intelligence as a system of intellectual abilities independent of the factor of general intelligence and associated primarily with the knowledge of behavioral information.
According to Guildford's concept, social intelligence includes 6 factors related to knowledge of behavior:
1. knowledge of the elements of behavior - the ability to isolate from the context verbal and non-verbal expression of behavior;
2. knowledge of classes of behavior - the ability to recognize common properties in the flow of expressive or situational information about behavior;
3. knowledge of the relationship of behavior - the ability to understand relationships;
4. knowledge of systems of behavior - the ability to understand the logic of the development of holistic situations of human interaction, the meaning of their behavior in these situations;
5. knowledge of the transformation of behavior - the ability to understand the change in the meaning of a similar behavior (verbal and non-verbal) in different situational contexts;
6. knowledge of the results of behavior - the ability to foresee the consequences of behavior, based on available information.
Subtest # 1 "Stories with completion"
In this subtest you will deal with pictures that depict the everyday situations that occur with the character Barney. Barney is a bald man, by profession - a waiter. In situations, the wife, the young son and friends of Barney, with whom he meets at home or in a cafe, also take part.
In each task on the left is a picture depicting a particular situation. Identify the feelings and intentions of the characters in it and choose among the three pictures on the right the one that shows the most plausible option for continuing (completing) this situation.
Consider an example:
In the picture on the left, Barney, hooked to the edge of the roof, is frightened and asks for help from his young son. The boy is excited to see his father in such a difficult situation.
The choice of Figure No. 1 is the correct answer in this case. Therefore, on the Answer Form, the number 1 is circled. Figure number 1 is the most logical and plausible continues the given situation: the wife and son Barney put a ladder to the wall in order to help him go down.
The choice of Figures 2 and 3 is less correct. As for drawing number 2, it is unlikely that, hanging in the air in such a frightened and helpless state, Barney will be able to climb onto the roof himself. Since Barney's position is dangerous, the wife and son would hardly mock him, as shown in figure 3.
So, in each task, you must predict what will happen after the situation depicted in the left figure, based on the feelings and intentions of the characters in it.
Do not choose a picture to answer only because it seemed to you the most amusing continuation. Offer the most typical and logical continuation of the given situation. The number of the selected figure (indicated in the lower right corner of the figure) is circled in a circle on the Answer Form. In the test notebooks, you can not make any notes.
Subtest is given for 6 minutes. A minute before the end of the work you will be warned. Work, if possible, faster. Do not waste much time on one task. If you are at a loss, answer the next question. To difficult tasks it will be possible to return at the end, if there is time. In difficult cases, give an answer, even if you are not entirely sure of its correctness.
Subtest No. 2 "Group expression"
In this subtest you will deal with pictures that depict poses, gestures, facial expressions, that is, expressive movements that reflect the state of a person.
To explain the essence of the task, consider an example. In this example, the three pictures on the left illustrate the same state of a person, the same thoughts, feelings, intentions.
One of the four pictures on the right expresses the same state, the same thoughts, feelings, or intentions. It is necessary to find this picture.
The correct answer is Figure 2, which expresses the same state (tension or nervousness) as the pictures on the left. Therefore, on the Answer Blank, figure 2 is circled. Figures 1, 3, 4 are not suitable, because they reflect other states (joys and well-being).
So, in each task subtest among the four drawings on the right You should choose the one that fits the group of three figures on the left, because it reflects a similar state. The number of the selected pattern with the circle in the form of responses.
On the execution subtest is given 7 minutes. A minute before the end of the work You will be warned. Work, if possible, faster. Don't waste a lot of time on one task. If difficult to answer, skip to the next paragraph. Difficult tasks can be revisited at the end, if you have the time. In difficult cases, let's answer, even if not completely sure it is correct.
Subtest No. 3 "Verbal expression"
In each task of this subtest on the left is written the phrase that one person tells another, and on the right lists the three situations of communication. And only one of the phrase given on the left will acquire a different meaning. Let's consider an example.
Deaf man – friend: "Repeat, please."
The message the deaf person to friend is a polite request. The same phrase in situations No. 2, 3 will have the same value. And just in situation number 1 in the mouth of the offended person it acquires a completely different meaning. Therefore, in the form of responses figure 1 circled.
So, in each task you need to choose the communication situation, in which the set left the phrase will acquire a different value will be associated with a different intention than in the other two situations.
On the execution subtest is 5 minutes. A minute before the end of the work You will be warned. Work, if possible, faster. Don't waste a lot of time on one task. If difficult to answer, skip to the next paragraph. Difficult tasks can be revisited at the end, if you have the time. In difficult cases, let's answer, even if not completely sure it is correct.
Subtest №4 "History Supplement"
In this subtest You will be dealing with pictures, which depict the story of Ferdinand. The Ferdinand has a wife and small child. He works as a chief, so the stories will also participate his colleagues.
Each task consists of eight pictures. The top four pictures reflect a history, originating with Ferdinand. One of these pictures is always ignored. You have to choose among four pictures the lower the number, which after the substitution in place of the empty square at the top will complement the story of Ferdinand in meaning. If You correctly choose the missing figure, the sense of history will be fully clarified, feelings, and intentions of currently active characters will become clear.
Consider this example:
In this story there is no third picture. At the end of history, we see that Ferdinand, who dreamed about lunch, not getting it, contrary to its expectations and comes out annoyed. Wife of Ferdinand angry and pretends to read her son's book. The boy sits quietly. All this is due to the fact that Ferdinand, washing up after work, left the kitchen dirt, and that angered his wife. Thus, a logical addition to the story is figure # 4. Therefore, in the form of responses figure 4 circled.
Drawings No. 1, 2, 3 do not correspond to the story meaning.
So, in each task you need to find a picture that complements the story of Ferdinand in meaning. On the execution subtest is 10 minutes. A minute before the end of the work You will be warned. Work, if possible, faster. Don't waste a lot of time on one task. If difficult to answer, skip to the next paragraph. Difficult tasks can be revisited at the end, if you have the time. In difficult cases, let's answer, even if not completely sure it is correct.
Social intelligence is an integral, intellectual ability that defines the success of communication and social adaptation, which integrates and regulates cognitive processes associated with reflection of social objects (person as the communication partner or group of people). To the processes of OBR-tousim include social sensitivity, social perception, social memory and social thinking. Sometimes in the literature of social intelligence is identified with one of the processes, often with social perception or social cognition.
Social intelligence provides an understanding of behavior and actions, speech, and nonverbal behavior (gestures, facial expressions) of people. It acts as a cognitive component of the communicative abilities of the individual and as a professionally important quality for the professions such as "man – man" and some of the professions such as "man – art image". In the ontogeny of social intelligence develops later than the emotional component of communication skills is empathy. Its formation is stimulated by the beginning of schooling when increasing the circle of communication, the child develops sensitivity, social-perceptual abilities, the ability to empathize with another without direct perception of the senses, the ability to take the perspective of another cheovek, to defend their opinion (all this is the basis of social intelligence).
The term "social intelligence" was introduced into psychology by E. Thorndike in 1920 to mean "foresight in interpersonal relationships". G. Allport defines social intelligence as a special "social gift" that ensures smoothness in human relations, the product of which is a social device, not a depth of understanding.
In Russian psychology concept of "social intelligence" was introduced by Yu.N.Emelyanov: "the Realm of possibility for subjective knowledge of an individual can be called social intelligence, seeing it as sustainable based on specificity of thought processes, affective response and social experience ability to understand yourself and other people, and their relationships to predict interpersonal events".
Thanks to the research of John.Guildford (1950-1967) the term "social intelligence" moved into the category of the measured constructs, that is part of the Arsenal of psychological practice.
The ability to measure social intelligence is derived from the General model of structure of intellect J. Guildford. He understood social intelligence as a system of intellectual abilities, independent of the General factor of intelligence and especially the knowledge of the behavioral information, as well as all-intellectual, can be described in the space of three variables: content, operations, results. John.Guilford singled out one operation – knowledge and focused his research on the cognition of behavior. This ability includes six factors:
1. The knowledge of the elements of behavior – the ability to isolate out of context verbal and nonverbal expression of behavior.
2. Knowledge of class behavior – the ability to recognize common properties in a stream of expressive or situational information about the behavior.
3. The knowledge relations behavior – the ability to understand the relationships that exist between information units on the behavior.
4. The knowledge of the system behavior – the ability to understand the holistic logic of development situations of interaction between people, the meaning of their behavior in these situations.
5. The knowledge of the transformation behavior is the ability to understand the changing values of similar behavior (verbal or nonverbal) in different situational contexts.
6. The knowledge of the results of behavior – the ability to foresee the consequences of their behavior on the basis of available information.
Model Dzh.Guildford opened the way to build a test battery for diagnosing social intelligence. Wedeck (1947) created the stimulus material, containing auditory and picture stimuli, which allowed to identify among the factors of General and verbal intelligence factor "psychological ability", which served as the prototype of social intelligence. These studies proved the need to use non-verbal material for diagnostics of social intelligence. It was found that social intelligence is not significantly correlated with the development of General intelligence and spatial intelligence, the ability to the visual distinction, originality of thinking, and the ability to manipulate the comic.
Depending on the study objectives, the methodology allows performing a full battery, and the use of the individual subtests. Possible individual and group testing options.
When using a complete variant of the method of the subtests are presented in the order of their numbering. However, the recommendations of the authors of the methodology are not immutable.
The time allotted for each subtest is limited to:
§ 6 minutes (1 subtest "the History end"),
§ 7 minutes (subtest 2 - "Group of expression"),
§ 5 minutes (3 subtest "Verbal expression"),
§ 10 minutes (4 subtest "History of amendments").
The total test time including instructions, is 30-35 minutes.
1. Distribute test booklets only at the time of conducting this subtest.
2. Make sure each time that the individual properly understood the instructions for subtest.
3. To achieve the subject learning described in the instructions information about Barney and Ferdinand - the characters first and last subtests.
4. To Orient subjects to choose responses that reflect the most typical behavior of the characters in this situation, except for the original and humorous interpretation.
5. Warn the examinee that in the case of corrections, it is necessary to clearly strike out the form wrong answers.
6. Overall not encouraging answers at random, you must specify the subject, that the best is still to give answers, even if they are not quite sure they are correct.
7. If you have any questions during testing must be addressed to the examinee instructions in writing, without discussion aloud.
8. To accurately measure time and to ensure that the examinee has not begun to work ahead of time.
Before testing the examinee are given answer sheets on which they record some information about yourself. After that, they receive test booklets from the first subtest and begin to get acquainted with the instruction in the course of its reading by the experimenter. In the process of reading the instructions the experimenter pauses after a sample to verify that the individual understood him correctly. At the end the user is given time to answer the questions. After that, the experimenter gives a command "Turn the page. Started" and includes a stopwatch.
A minute before the end of the work on subtests examinee is warned about this. After the time work is given the command "Stop. Put your handle," examined the rest for a few minutes and move on to the next subtest.
Subtest No. 1 "the History end"
Persons with high scores on the subtest are able to foresee the consequences of their behavior. They are able to anticipate future actions of people based on the analysis of real communication situations (family, business, friendship), to predict events based on the understanding of feelings, thoughts, intentions of the participants of communication. Their predictions can be incorrect if they are dealing with people, leading a most unexpected, unique way. Such people can clearly develop a strategy of their own behavior to achieve the goal. The successful implementation of subtest involves the ability to navigate in nonverbal reactions of the participants of the interaction and the knowledge norm of role models and rules governing people's behavior.
Persons with low scores on subtest a poor understanding of the link between behaviour and its consequences. Such people can often make mistakes (including illegal actions), get in conflict, and possibly in a dangerous situation because the misrepresent the results of their actions or the actions of others. They are poorly oriented in the generally accepted norms and rules of conduct.
The success of this subtest is positively correlated with the following psychological characteristics:
§ the ability to fully and accurately describe the personality of a stranger pictures;
§ the ability to decipher non-verbal messages;
§ differentiation of self-concept, richness of self-image understanding, intelligent, strong-willed characteristics, and a description of the characteristics of spiritual organization of personality.
Subtest № 2 - "Group of expression"
Persons with high scores on the subtest is able to correctly estimate the state, feelings, people's intentions for their non-verbal expressions, facial expressions, postures, gestures. Such people are likely to attach great importance to non-verbal communication, I draw a lot of attention to non verbal reactions of the communication parties. Sensitivity to non-verbal expression significantly enhances the ability to understand others. The ability to read the nonverbal signals of another person, to understand them and to compare with verbal, according to A. Pisa, is the basis of "sixth sense" - intuition. In psychology the well-known studies that prove the great importance of non-verbal communication. So, R. Bidswill found that in conversation verbal communication is less than 35% and that over 65% of information is transmitted nonverbally.
Persons with low scores on the subtest poor command of the language of gestures, attitudes and gestures, which developed early in ontogeny and is more credible than verbal language). In communicating such people to rely more on verbal content of messages. And they can make mistakes in understanding the meaning of words because do not take into account (or wrong account) accompanying non-verbal reactions.
The success of the performance subtest positively correlated:
§ accuracy, completeness, estereotipos and plasticity in the description of the personality of a stranger pictures;
§ with sensitivity to the emotional state of others in business situations;
§ with a variety of expressive repertoire in communication;
§ have an open and friendly in communication;
§ with emotional stability;
§ with sensitivity to feedback in communication, receptivity to criticism, conscientiousness;
§ high self-esteem and level of self-acceptance;
§ with saturation I-image description of a strong-willed personality characteristics, activity stanchest;
§ depth of reflection;
§ accurate understanding of how their own emotional state perceived by his partners in dialogue, which is an indicator of congruency of communicative behavior, a prerequisite for successful self-presentation;
§ empathy with non-verbal sensitivity.
Subtest No. 3 - "Verbal expression"
Persons with high scores on the subtest are highly sensitive to the nature and nuances of human relationships, allowing them to quickly and correctly understand what people say to each other (verbal expression) in the context of a particular situation, a particular relationship. Such people are able to find the appropriate tone of communication with different interlocutors in different situations and have a large repertoire of role behavior (that is, they exhibit plasticity role).
Persons with low scores on the subtest bad recognize different meanings that can accept the same verbal messages depending on the nature of the relationship between people and the context of the situation of communication. Such people often "say the wrong thing" and mistaken in the interpretation of the interlocutor.
The success of the subtest also correlates positively with the accuracy of the description of the personality of an unfamiliar person on the picture, saturation of I-image description of spiritual values and the scale of empathy.
Subtest № 4 - "History with the addition of"
Persons with high scores on the subtest is able to recognize the structure of interpersonal situations in dynamics. They know how to analyze the complex situation of human interaction, understand the logic of their development, feel the change of sense of the situation when the inclusion in the communication of the various participants. By logical reasoning they can finish unknown, missing links in the chain of these interactions, to predict how people will behave in the future, to find the causes of this behavior. For example, subtest allows to predict the success of the investigator build a coherent picture of the crime based on incomplete data. The successful implementation of subtest involves the ability to adequately reflect the goals, intentions, needs of participants of communication, to predict the consequences of their behavior. In addition, you need the ability to navigate in nonverbal reactions of the person, as well as the norms and rules governing behavior in society.
Persons with low scores on the subtest are experiencing difficulties in the analysis of situations of interpersonal interaction and as a consequence poorly adapted to different kinds of relationships between people (family, business, social and others).
Subtest is the most comprehensive and informative on the total factor weight in the structure of social intelligence.
The success of the performance subtest positively correlated with accuracy, completeness, differentiation and flexibility of the description of an unfamiliar person on the photo with the differentiation of self-concept, depth of reflection, with self-acceptance, self-esteem, interest in social problems, public activity, with examination success.
Interpretation of the composite assessment of social intelligence
The overall level of development of social intelligence (the integral factor of cognition behaviour) is determined on the basis of the composite evaluation. The meaning of the composite measure, expressed in standard scores, we can determine the following:
§ 1 point - low social intelligence;
§ 2 points - social intelligence is below average (rednesday);
§ 3 points - average social intelligence (srednevyborgskoe norm);
§ 4 points - social intelligence above the average (medium strong);
§ 5 points - high social intelligence.
Social intelligence is a system of intellectual abilities that determine the adequacy of the understanding of human behavior. According to the authors of a technique, ability, affect the level of the composite measure, "likely to cover the traditional concepts of social sensitivity, empathy, perception of the other and what can be called social intuition". Performing a regulatory function in interpersonal communication, social intelligence provides social adaptation of personality, "smoothness in dealing with people".
Persons with high social intelligence are able to extract the maximum information about the behavior of people to understand the language of nonverbal communication, to make quick and accurate judgments about people, successfully predict their reaction in specified circumstances, to be prudent in relations with others that contribute to their successful social adaptation.
Persons with high social intelligence tend to be successful communicators. They are characterized by contact, openness, tact, friendliness and cordiality, the trend towards the psychological intimacy in communication.