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The methodology developed in the 30-ies of XX century by the Viennese psychologist L. Sondhi (in other translations - Sounding, Shondi or Scandi), based on empirical data obtained in numerous studies mainly individuals with serious problems or mental illness. But later it was widely used as a projective personality test, while noteworthy, is the fact that Sondhi gives a large range of occupations associated with different personality patterns, detected by the method.
Psychological experiment is. that the examined person is invited to choose the most likable and least pleasant portraits of different men and women. Each portrait in their physiognomic and psychological nature reflects in the most knife-edged view of the manifestation of one of the main eight basic human drives Sondhi believes that typologically different personality structures can be represented by various combinations of these 8 core drives. Each of them, depending on formal indicators reveals a particular condition or problem of the target person.
In support of his method, Sondhi suggests that the most pronounced strength and diagnostic value have portraits that match the most important needs of the individual and genetically determined inclinations. Their assumptions Sondhi argues conducted an experimental study and clinical observations. The portraits are divided into 6 series of 8 portraits in each series. The idea is to use a notched pathological process of personal properties not only for differential diagnostic purposes, but to explore the individual - is the basis of many diagnostic techniques highlights the moderate quantitative indicators traits and personality traits that when high rates are interpreted as a deviation from the norm. This parallel conducted in the early twentieth century Kretschmer. This approach is criticized, however, in practice, the problem of premorbid and stigmatized™ has always been the center of attention of psychiatrists, and in recent decades has become highly relevant for psychologists, educators, and other professionals involved in the individualization of the educational process, family counselling, career guidance and placement.
The validity of this approach at the time was highlighted and well-known domestic psychologist BV Zeigarnik. She saw ample opportunities for studying of the person for example pointed hell pathologically mentally ill people, treating them as a crude model is less clear, relaxed and balanced normal personality traits.
Those professionals (psychologists, doctors, teachers), who happened to familiarise yourself with the test Sondhi definitely drew attention to the marked peculiarity of the thesaurus of the author of the methodology and the complexity of matching data with the results of other studies To a large extent this is due to a purely psychoanalytic base interpretive approach of the author, and with a certain archaic understanding of psychoanalysis over the last century has continued to develop At the same time, some difficulties in understanding what I wanted to say to his readers, the author, experts are testing for many translations of works of Sondhi guilty of inaccuracy Here once again confirmed already become a popular opinion that the translation of experience and specialist knowledge in professional sphere is not less important than the knowledge of a foreign language.
All these difficulties led to the need for modifications to the inspection procedures and interpretation of results. First, despite the desire to preserve a specific style of L. Sondhi, sometimes had to resort to a more understandable modern psychological terminology with regard to interpretation, in a modified version it is based on the theory of leading tendencies, which considers personality as education, rooted in a genetically predetermined predisposition. Leading the trend are those sustainable, sudbo-implementing properties that permeate all levels of the individual and largely determine the style of life, career choices, social activity, and significantly influence the formation of individual hierarchy of values.
In a modified version of the portrait was made re-famous and very talented artist B. I. " N " with the preservation of their psychological nature and similarity with the original. Then the validity of the test was validated in experiment on a representative group rules and contingent clinic border States.
The test in essence is not a quantitative method, in which restandardization could clarify population-based norms Sam L. Sondhi on the basis of experimental data argues that ethnic and cultural and social aspects do not affect test results since the structure of the impulses underlying the perception of material techniques are universal for people of any nationality and socio-regional identity. Therefore adaptation test mainly comes down to revalidatie detected by the method of phenomena, which was done in the process of working on a modified version of the test by comparing the data with the results of other diagnostic tests and objective observation data.
The main objective pursued by the author of a new development test is the study of the conceptual framework of phenomenological methodology and its comparability with individually-typological approach underlying the theory of leading tendencies. Additionally, the modification of the method allowed the use of categorical and conceptual Arsenal of modern psychology, and clarify the phenomenological structure of the test in the context of the above typology of individual properties.